Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. [31][75] The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. [31][34][41] The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. [48], In the United States it was imported very early in the 18th[note 3] century and cultivated for its medicinal and piscicide properties. Verbascum thapsus L. Verbascum thapsus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae). It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm (6 in) across die in winter. ecosystems. [6][note 1] The plant produces small, ovoid (6 mm, 0.24 in) capsules that split open by way of two valves, each capsule containing large numbers of minute, brown seeds less than 1 mm (0.04 in)[12] in size, marked with longitudinal ridges. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. In such ecological contexts, it crowds out native herbs and grasses; its tendency to appear after forest fires also disturbs the normal ecological succession. The vision of the British Ecological Society is to advance ecology and make it count. option. I Introduction. Most population differences in length of these periods were maintained in the common garden. [7], On flowering plants, the leaves are alternately arranged up the stem. The flowering period of V. thapsus lasts from June to August in most of its range, extending to September or October in warmer climates. The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. [69394] Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a European plant that has made its way all over the world. Question Author. ", In book 25, Pliny describes "two principal kinds [of verbascum]" thought to be. Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site. Select the purchase 177 1753. are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography by, "Element Stewardship Abstract for Verbascum thapsus", "Verbascum oreophilum var. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. [55], A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. Diodorus Siculus write that Agathocles of Syracuse conquered the city.. During his civil war, Julius Caesar defeated Metellus Scipio and the Numidian king Juba I at the costly 46 BC Battle of Thapsus. nigrum). Dissertation. agricultural land use in forests may be visible both. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and of case studies. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. [5] The tall, pole-like stems end in a dense spike of flowers[3] that can occupy up to half the stem length. [44][45][46][47] It has also been reported in Japan. With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … [note 4][9][49] In 1839 it was already reported in Michigan and in 1876, in California. It never has been used for food but traditionally has been … Journal of Ecology was first published in 1913 to coincide with the Society's inaugural meeting and the portfolio has been expanded to include Journal of Animal Ecology (from 1932), Journal of Applied Ecology (from 1964), Functional Ecology (from 1987) and the online journal Methods in Ecology and Evolution (from 2010). [12] Its population pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a long period of dormancy as seeds. ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. [42], Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. of ecological principles and the research presented must transcend the limits [9][82], Due to its weedy capacities, the plant, unlike other species of the genus (such as V. phoeniceum), is not often cultivated. crassifolium, the hairiness is less dense and often absent from the upper part of the anthers, while lower leaves are hardly decurrent and have longer petioles. is published six times a year. Diese Pflanze wird schon seit langem in der pflanzlichen Heilkunde (Phytotherapie) angewendet. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. Verbascum thapsus was used medicinally by some Native American tribes. The BES's many activities include the publication of a range of scientific literature, including five internationally renowned journals, the organisation and sponsorship of a wide variety of meetings, the funding of numerous grant schemes, education work and policy work. There is substantial intraspecific variation in time of reproduction in most monocarpic plants. [10] This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. [18] European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation,[19] which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years. Books to Borrow. Ecology. [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, and has become invasive in temperate world regions. Journal of Ecology [11] The hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for visitors. Populations were chosen at the northern (southern Canada) and southern (southern Texas and Georgia) limits of its range in North America, and in North Carolina and came from a range of the habitats occupied by the species. [80] Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. issues of general interest to ecologists. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. Annual genotypes are favoured only in the long southern growing season and where survival is uncertain in the second year because of drought or competition. The journal does not publish papers Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. On average, triennial plants produced only one-fifth as much seed as biennial plants. Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo. crassifolium were originally described as species. Its small, yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which grows from a large rosette of leaves. Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. 105 viride, ii. "The thick woolly leaves of V. thapsus, the Great Mullein, have a mucilaginous, bitterish taste, and a decoction of them is employed in domestic practice in catarrhs and diarrhoea. [9][10][12] The species is legally listed as a noxious weed in the American state of Colorado (Class C)[64] and Hawaii,[65] and the Australian state of Victoria (regionally prohibited in the West Gippsland region, and regionally controlled in several others). ---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). Genetic components of life history variation were studied by growing seed from several different populations in a common garden in Durham, North Carolina. [11], For the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. Discussion in Working Party on European Unionmonographs and European Union list (MLWP) September 2007 October 2007 . [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. [12] Ground herbicides, like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but recreate bare ground and require repeated application to prevent regrowth. 2. [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. 12:27 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. 72(3): 897-912. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. (2) Vegetative individuals colonize a disturbed site for only a few growing seasons after disturbance. V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch), have also been reported in North America. [25][29], V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. See also: Verbascum_thapsus § Traditional_medicine The plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", webpage with pictures of tall specimens,, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. [31], The plant has been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations. [40], Some names refer to the plant's size and shape: "shepherd's club(s)" or "staff", "Aaron's Rod" (a name it shares with a number of other plants with tall, yellow inflorescences), and a plethora of other "X's staff" and "X's rod". Pl. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. Verbascum thapsus near Brownstone Battery - - 1544367.jpg 480 × 640; 143 KB Verbascum thapsus plant1.jpg 960 × 1,280; 672 KB Verbascum thapsus Ukontulikukka Kungsljus IX07 H2360.JPG 1,712 × 2,272; 1.42 MB You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. History. The second-year plants normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall. All parts of the plants are covered with star-shaped trichomes. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. [7] It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. (8) The pattern of a short period of population growth, followed by a long period of slow decline of the buried seed pool, causes population growth rates to be dependent solely upon the number of seeds produced and independent of the time of their production. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit, disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various . In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. Request Permissions. concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems. Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, For example, in the “biennial” Verbascum thapsus, reproduction may actually take place in the first, second, or third year of growth depending on latitude and successional status of the habitat (Reinartz, 1984a, b). giganteum and subsp. [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. The information rendered in the . [2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. [53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. VERBASCUM THAPSUS Mullein (VERBASCUM) Has a pronounced action on the inferior maxillary branch of the fifth pair of the cranial nerves; on the ear; and respiratory tract and bladder. In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis. European Unionherbal monograph on Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. This gradient also included environmental extremes (e.g. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. This drug cures deafness and all symptoms related to cold as well. Mullein, any of the 360 species of the genus Verbascum (family Scrophulariaceae), large biennial or perennial herbs native to northern temperate regions, especially eastern Eurasia. (1) Twenty-four natural populations of the monocarpic perennial Verbascum thapsus were mapped and studied over 3 years. [24], The plant is also parent to several hybrids (see table). org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. Edward G. Reekie, in Plant Resource Allocation, 1997. It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste … The journal To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). JSTOR provides a digital archive of the print version of Journal of [1], V. thapsus is a dicotyledonous plant that produces a rosette of leaves in its first year of growth. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. [30][31][32] In North America, "common mullein" is used[33][34] while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". 102 sabadilla, ii. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). Both experimental and theoretical studies are accepted, as Studies of plant communities, populations or individual species Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. #3 VESTH) has an ancient relationship with man. (6) Longer average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the ground surface covered by vegetation. p. 223) analyzed the flow- ers of Verbascum Thapsus, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ...ii. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. [10] While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. [19] Great mullein rarely establishes on new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far. The Society was established in 1913 and has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, and membership is open to all with an interest in ecology. (7) In the common garden, plants from southern populations began to bolt and flower earlier than those from the other populations. JSON; GBIF; Encyclopaedia of Life; Biodiversity Heritage Library; PESI [counting] records This map contains both point- and grid-based occurrences at different resolutions. [62], Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers.